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As a whole, of Res Gestae has been considered extremely valuable, being a clear, comprehensive impartial account of events. It is a major source of information on the Roman world of the fourth century and one of the few sources on Roman Britain during this period. He was aware that appearing to be too critical, or too sympathetic, towards named people might attract censure.

Declining into old age, and often owing victory to its name alone, Rome has come to a quieter period of its existence.

Itineraries of the Roman emperors, 337–361

Yet he could not contemplate her actual Fall, believing that in the end its own heritage would enable its survival. However, his description of the Empire, the exhaustion produced by excessive taxation, the financial ruin of the middle classes, the progressive decline in the morale of the army provides an explanation for sack of Rome by the Visigoths only twenty years after his death. Like other historians of his day, he does not indicate sources. He does refer to Sallust and allusion to Tacitus, Livy, and Herodotus can be identified in his text.

The Later Roman Empire: (a.D. ) - Ammianus (Marcellinus), Ammianus Marcellinus - كتب Google

Critics, pointing to the turgid, sometimes obscure style of his prose, speculate why he chose to write in Latin and not in his native Greek. Some maintain that his style is harsh, often pompous and extremely obscure, occasionally even journalistic in tone, due the author's foreign origin and his military life and training. Certainly, the Res Gestae, has suffered from the manuscript transmission.

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Aside from the loss of the first thirteen books, the remaining eighteen are in many places corrupt with sections missing. The sole surviving manuscript from which almost every other is derived is a ninth century Carolingian text, V, produced in Fulda from an insular exemplar.

The Roman Empire 750 B.C. - 1453 A.D.

The only independent textual source for Ammianus lies in M , another ninth-century Frankish codex which was, unfortunately, unbound and placed in other codices during the fifteenth century. Only six leaves of M survive; however, the printed edition of Gelenius G is considered to be based on M, making it an important witness to the textual tradition of the Res Gestae. Ammianus was a pagan , and some have said that he marginalizes Christianity repeatedly in his account. Edward Gibbon judged Ammianus "an accurate and faithful guide, who composed the history of his own times without indulging the prejudices and passions which usually affect the mind of a contemporary.

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The way in which Ammianus wrestled with the questions of objectivity, the way in which he used he drew on own presence at events to construct history while aware of political consequences of what he wrote, remain of considerable interest. He was passionate about loyalty to the Emperor yet also criticized emperors.

He appears to have regarded history as a tool to help understand the past in order to shape the present and to influence the future. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.


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ISBN 1 8. New York: Penguin, The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization. Revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Read the assignments in advance and bring those texts to class as indicated on the syllabus. Intellectual honor, excellence, and honesty are demanded in all your work.

stepunchelivil.ml These topics will focus on the assigned readings, both primary sources and secondary analyses. A schedule will be established for these presentations. Each item should consist of the correct bibliographical citation for the book or journal article which could be from a print or electronic format and must go beyond the assigned readings.

This bibliography is for the final paper. Students will also turn in a five point outline with an introductory thesis statement that explains the main argument of the final paper in draft format as assigned. The fifteen minute presentation includes time for class interaction and questions. These tests will focus on the major issues and arguments of the common readings.

Thus a paper that analyzes a narrow topic in depth is far preferable to some broad survey. In developing your argument, you should quote five passages from one or more primary source s which can be from our readings in class or from other ancient authors located in print volumes or from online sources. You must fully document these sources by ancient authors and titles, book and section numbers, translators, the modern title, publisher, place and date of publication, and page numbers. You may use either footnotes with a bibliography OR parenthetical citations with a list of works cited.


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  4. These must also be properly cited by footnote or parenthetical reference. All works used in the paper must be given proper credit. Academic dishonesty is a very serious offense. Definition of Plagiarism from To The Point and the College Catalog: Plagiarism is the act of appropriating and using the words, ideas, symbols, images, or other works of original expression of others as one's own without giving credit to the person who created the work.